Skip to content


default color
PHUKET - BOTHI GAYA (6) PDF พิมพ์ อีเมล์
เขียนโดย Arunrat Sanphet   
พุธ, 28 ธันวาคม 2011

Archaeological remains of Phuket and Bodhgaya

: A cultural study of India and Thailand 


(1)   (2)   (3)  (4)   (5)   (6)


Chapter 6


Phuket as the site of heritage is accountable owing to the visitors from Asia and the wider western world more than 3 million that come to Phuket and growing up every year. Rubber: First introduced from Malaya in 1903, the orderly ranks of rubber trees soon came to define much of the local landscape. Rubber plantations are still much in evidence, but soaring real estate values and the boom in tourism has meant that land is being turned to other uses.Tin: This mineral has been mined on Phuket from time immemorial; however the demand for tin has declined. Tin dredging in offshore waters has slowed in the past few years, moreover, by zoning regulations designed to help protect the coral reefs and beaches of the west coast.

Old tin-mine workings on land, meanwhile, are being converted from unsightly scars in the landscape to beautiful resort hotel developments, yacht marinas, golf courses and bungee-jumping facilities.Fishing: Fishing still constitutes an important part of life for the people living along the coast, however small-scale fisheries are being hurt by modern trawling, some of it illegal. Large-scale fisheries, meanwhile, are threatened with the depletion of commercial fish stocks from over-fishing.Phuket PeopleThe people in Phuket are charming and friendly1.

They are very kindness for visitors, and want others love of their country and trust to their culture like them too. Remember that smile can use in every situations: thank you, you’re welcome, sorry, pardon or not at all.There are many group of people in Phuket : Thai, Chinese, Muslim, Chao Le-sea nomads-sea gypsy, European,  Indian and Arab.  And they can live together in balance way of life as a melting pot of different culture.Thai : Thai people in Phuket is come from the province nearby or native-born, and married with the other.Chinese : Many of Chinese families in Phuket came to here in the early part of this century to work as a labor in the tin-mining industry.

Most of them married with native-born and their children were called Baba and Nyonya, their culture is mixed of Chinese and Malayan. Muslim (originally of Malay descent) :  The Muslim villagers that living in Amphur Talang and islands such as Koh Raya Yai. Many of these people originally came from Malaysia with their cultue. Chao Le (sea nomads-sea gypsy) :  Chao Le are the native people that across several archipelagoes and sea around Phuket, Krabi, Phang Nga, Trang, Ranong and Satun. There are three group of Chao Le: Sing-ta-le (Moken Pulau), Sing-bok(Morken Tamub) and Uraklawoi, they living on Koh Sire ( 4km east of Phuket Town ), Rawai village, Sapam vilage and Leam Lar ( Maikao district-Amphur Talang ) Europeans :  They come to Phuket since Ayutthaya period in reign of King Naray, the first is Portuguese traders and missionary. There are three important Christian churches in Phuket : at Chao-Fa Rd., Talang Rd. and near Mission Hospital.Indians and Arabs :  Arabs and Indians lived in Phuket since the World War II.

There is a Brahmin temple on Montri Rd. Public HolidaysThailand has adopted the western calendar to divided the year into days, weeks and months, using Thai names for these units. Years are numbered according to the Buddhist era (BE) which commenced 543 years before the Christian era. Therefore 2003 AD is BE 2546 and 2004 is BE 2547.Thailand’s national public holidays are linked to religious or agricultural traditions and follow the lunar calendar, therefore the dates for some of the holidays change each year2. On those days government offices, banks and almost everything else will be closed. The following are national public holidays in Thailand : ท 

New Year’s Day : Jan 1 ท
Makha Bucha Day  : late January to    early March
Chakri Day  : April 6 ท 
Songkran Day  :  April 13
National Labour Day : May 1
Coronation Day  : May 5 ท
Visakha Bucha Day  : May
Asanha Bucha Day  : July
Khao Phansa (Buddhist Lent)  : July ท 
HM the Queen’s Birthday : August 12 ท                 Chulalongkorn Day  : October 23 ท 
HM the King’s Birthday : December 5 ท              Constitution Day  : December 10
New Year’s Eve  : December 31

Business Hours : Most commercial concerns in Bangkok operate on a five-day week, usually from 8 am to 5 pm. Many stores open seven days a week from 10 am to 10 pm. Government offices are generally open between 8.30 am and 4.30 pm with a noon to 1 pm lunch break, Monday to Friday except on public holidays.

Banks are open Mondays to Fridays from 9.30 am to 3.30 pm except on public holidays.VoltageThe electric current is 220 volt AC (50 cycles) throughout the country. Many different types of plugs and sockets are in use, but two pin flat (US type) or round (European type) are pretty universal. Travelers with electric shavers, hair dryers, tape recorders and other appliances should carry a plug adapter kit. The better hotels will make available 110-volt transformers.TransportationCar RentRent a car and drive around is the best ways to see Phuket. There are many of good viewer roads, particularly on the West Coast. It’s fun, easy  and inexpensive3. (reminds that you must follow the laws) The rule about driving in Phuket :

1. Driving on the left side of the road (as in the UK, Singapore and numerous other countries)

2. International License and Thai Driving License is the same.

3. Seat belt wearing and drink driving laws apply, and are occasionally enforced. Full Comprehensive Insurance is necessary. BusThere are 2 lines of the bus that go around in Phuket Town. One is leave from Archeewa collage(The Vocational Education collage) to Big C and back. And the other is leave from Laem-chan government clinic to Rajabhat Institute and back.

Archeewa collage(The Vocational Education collage) to Big C by way of Phuket rd., Phuket Bus Terminal, and Bangkok rd., and back ท Laem-chan government clinic to Rajabhat Institute by way of Central Market, Phuket Bus Terminal, Phuket Provincial Prison, Supercheap, and back. 06.00 a.m. until 10.30 p.m. for every day.(10 baht for the fee) LongtailManeuverings though the turquoise waters surrounding Phuket is a wonderful experience. Island taxis Boat know as long-tails “Reua Hang Yao” are built to last 50 years, and cut through the sea with ease. Indispensable to fisherman, the long-tail requires a skilled hand and well-defined body behind the helm to navigate the wooden vessel. Many of these seaworthy crafts can be hired to visit nearby islands for a negotiated price4.

Motorbike Rent  There are many road side vendors that offer motor bikes for rent, from the zippy 100cc - 750cc road race variety. You must remember that no motorbike is insurable, regardless of what the vendor tells you, and many person have an accident on a bike here. If you have an accident you almost pay everything by yourself (bike repairs or costly replacement, yourself and third party injuries or damage)Motorbike taxis  Motorbike taxi can be found throughout Phuket’s main arteries. Drivers wearing colored vests with numbers on their backs generally bargain the price. It is always best to agree on a sum before napping on the back. This way of getting around is quick and easy. It’s must to hang on; these guys like to go fast.SongtaewsThese trucks with benches in the back serve both locals tourists in need of a ride. Songtaews travel designed routes, leaving the central market area in Phuket  Town strating at 7 a.m. and stopping at 6 p.m. They frequent the various beach every half-an-hour5.

The average cost is between 10–40 bath.TaxiThere are some taxis in Phuket too, you can take them by call 0-7625-0297, 0-7625-0333, 0-7625-0345. The rates are international standards and although tipping is not customary. Course of they are metered cabs so there are usually present no significant problems for tourists.Tuk-tuksTuk-tuks are abundant in Phuket, and its offers more safety and comfort than motorbikes taxi. A set fare is between 20 to 40 baht for travel in Phuket Town, in other areas the price is exchangeable.Phuket Festival

Thao Thep Kasattri and Thao Srisunthon FairThis fair is held on March 13 every year to commemorate the two great heroines who rallied the Thalang people to repel Burmese invaders.Many activities and celebrations are organized.

Seafood FestivalHeld around May yearly, is designed to publicize the delicious seafood of Phuket and attract visitors during the rainy season. Activities include a Marine Tourism Resources Parade, seafood stalls, demonstrations of regional cuisines and cultural shows.

Phuket Vegetarian FestivalHeld on the first day of the 9th lunar month (usually October). Phuket islanders of Chinese ancestry commit themselves to a 9-day vegetarian diet, a form of purification believed to help make the forthcoming year “trouble-free”. The festival is marked by several ascetic displays, including fire-walking and ascending sharp-bladed ladders6.

Phuket Travel FairHeld on November 1st, was first initiated in 1985 at Patong to welcome in the tourist season and designed to foster co-operation among tourism-related operators both in the private and public sectors. Many colorful and interesting activities are organized, such as merit-making in the morning; water sports contests, a Miss Visitor Contest, among others.

Phuket King’s Cup RegattaHeld in December. The Phuket Yacht Club hosts international yachtsmen, largely from neighboring countries who compete in the Nai Han Beach area for royal trophies.

Laguna Phuket TriathlonHeld in each December. The triathlon (a 1,000-metre swim, a 5-kilometre bike race and a 12-kilometre run) attracts world-class athletes from all over the world.

Turtle Release FairHeld on Songkran, the nationwide Thai water festival, on April 13 which is also National Fisherman’s Day. Baby turtles are released into the sea at various locations.Chao Le (Sea Gypsy) Boat Floating FestivalFalls during the middle of the sixth and eleventh lunar months yearly7.

The sea gypsy villages at Rawai and Sapam hold their ceremonies on the 13th; Ko Si-re celebrates on the 14th; and Laem La (east of the bridge on Phuket’s northerntip) on the 15th. Ceremonies, which centre on the setting adrift of small boats similar to the Thai festival of Loi Krathong, are held at night and their purpose is to drive away evil and bring good luck.

Por Tor FestivalThis is an ancestor’s festival of the ethnic Chinese that falls on the seventh Chinese lunar month, which is the same as the ninth lunar month of the Thais. Special foods, flowers and candles are presented to the ancestor’s altars. Cakes in the shape of turtles are made from flour. This is done because turtles live to great age and it is believed that by making such offering worshippers may extend the length of their lives. It is an important merit-making festival. Phuket architectureArchitecture in Phuket shows to the design that merges between belief and art with China, England, India, Holland and Malayu together.  The figure of buildings is prominent with two designs. They are Chinese art that can show about their belief since an ancient time. Other one is the art which blends between Western and Eastern style, called “Shino-Portuguese” First architecture that has a rule in Phuket is Chinese architecture because almost of Chinese people were a big cluster in Phuket at that time8. 

Most of these people moved from the South of Hokkien province and then worked in Phuket at the flourish era of tin mine. When there were building constructions in Phuket, Chinese people often used their old believes to mix with the modern style. You can see at the top of poles, above window frames etc. so design of Chinese belief will be there also such as Nam Tao pattern, fire pearl, flower, bat and so on.The Western architecture which is Portuguese, Holland and England had many influences on colonialism era. Colonists changed to occupy the colony and find for their advantages. A dominant feature of this architecture style is in front of the building often has a long curve hole to be a path. (Ngor Kar Khee) with 5 feet width and brought wires in Greek  period such as a horseshoes curve window frame or head pole in Yonic (Ionic) architecture and Corinthian (embellish with big leaves) etc.Shino-Portuguese architecture is a merging between Western and Eastern cultures for example design a building in Western style but a pattern follows by Chinese belief and so on.

Phuket local foodThe local food of Phuket has its own character. Even nearby provinces don’t have the same kind of dishes of food Phuket has. With so many different restaurants in Phuket so we choose the list of dishes and shops below for examples.ท 

Kanohm Jin Phuket : Noodles often compared to spaghetti served with a spicy curry sauce, the original made from fish. It is usually eaten as breakfast. It comes with a range of fresh vegetables and boiled eggs. And often found with the fried pastry called Pah Tong Go and the curried fish mousse called Hor Mohk, both of them are very tasty. Look for a shop that has many curries to choose from if you are sensitive to spicy cuisine course there are some of the curries that not spicy too. The most famous shops in Phuket Town from many shops:  - Kwan Kanohm Jin on Tungka Rd. - Pah Mai on statun Rd. - Pha Ri on Pahtiphaht Rd.

Lo Bah : Fried sausages served with fried tofu and spicy sweet or sour sauce. For this try in Phuket Town : - On The way to span Hin.  - On Poonphol Rd. Oh Tao : Oysters fried with eggs, flour, and taro root. The best known places in Phuket Town are : - near the circle by the Fresh Market.  - At Sapam village- Near the Tessaban Ban Bang Niao School on Takua Tong Rd- On Vichit Songkram Rd., near the entrance to Soi Lorong. Tao Sor or Kanohm Bia Phuket Spring rolls, Chinese crepes. Have two kinds: sweet or salty. The best known are found at:  - Kaeng Tin near Ruam Paet Hospital on Phuket Rd. - On Soi Suhn Utit, Yaowarat Rd., in Phuket Town. - Kuhn Mae on Thep Krasatri Rd., in the village of Sapam. - Mae Boon Tahm on Surin Rd., Soi 4. ท 

Oh Aew A dessert made of banana-flour, and a little seaweed (from China). Look for it at: - On Soi Soon Utit, Yaowarat Rd. - On Ranong Rd., at the entrance to Soi Lorong- On Vichit Songkram Rd., near the entrance to Soi Lorong ท 

Nam Phrik Kung Siap is a mixture of red-onion, chili and smoked shrimps taken with various fresh vegetables. Cashew nuts : are widely grown in Phuket. Cashew nuts are available dried, fried or coated9. Pineapples : Phuket pineapples are some of the most delectable, sweet and firm.  

Fried or Boiled Noodle Dishes usually with shrimp, pork or chicken. There are many noodle shops in the town such as Mee Ton Pho, Mi Sapam, Mi Ao Ke, Mi Hun Pa Chang, and etc. Fried Noodle Dishes There are many fried-noodle shops in the town.- Mee Ton Poh : in Phuket Town , near the clock tower traffic circle on Phuket Rd.,. - Mee Sapam : in the Sapam village. - Mee Ao Geh : in Phuket Town on Phunphol Rd.,. *Yellow noodles are also cooked in both “dry” and “wet” versions, serve with prawn soup. Look for it at: - Mee Somjit : in Phuket Town , near the clock-tower traffic circle on Phuket Rd. - Mee Jirayuwat : in Phuket Town , near the Pearl Cinema on Phang-nga Rd. (the old Phuket theater–now is closed) *Dry Fried noodles eaten with pork bone soup called “Mee Huhn Pah Chahng” For this try: (all in Phuket Town): - On Thanon Yaowarat.    - Near the Tessaban Ban Bang Niao School on Takua Tong Rd. - On Vichit Songkram Rd., near the entrance to Soi Lorong Mee Sue Breakfast noodles served with the boiled rice dishes Khao Tohm or Johk.

Phuket was known as Bukit, Junk Ceylon, or Muang Talang, in the variety of reason. Bukit is the name that derives in meaning from the Tamil manikram, or Crystal Mountain. Junk Ceylon is the name that found on the old maps (Ptolemy's Geographical, written by the Alexandrian geographer in the Third Century A.D.) and Muang Talang is called since the part of the Srivichai and Siri Tahmarach empires. It was first called Monton Phuket in Rama V's reign.

Phuket is a town with a long history. In centuries past, Phuket was an important trading post on the eastern shore of the bay of Bengal, handing shipping and dealing with sailors from the Arab and Malay worlds, India, Burmar, China and, of course, Siam. By the 16th century, the island was also well-know to Europeans, as first Portuguese and Dutch, then English and French sailed to its fabled shore. The island enjoyed an unprecedented surge in wealth when tin was found to be available in large quantities in the nearby shadows. Ambitious, hardworking miner and business flocked to the island from the province of south China (the 19th century), adding a considerable Chinese element to the island's already mixed population. 

The most important historic event is the story of two heroines: Thao Thep Kasatri (Kunying Jan) and Thao Sri Sunthon(Kunying Mook) that people in Phuket were assembled led by the two heroines to fight with the Burmese that come to attack them. After a month's siege the Burmese were forced to depart on 13 March, 1785. Kunying Jan and her sister were credited with the successful defense. In recognition King Rama I bestowed upon Kunying Jan the honorific Thao Thep Kasatri, a title of nobility usually reserved for royalty, by which she is known today. Her sister (Kunying Mook) became Thao Sri Sunthon10. 

Location & MapPhuket is located about between 7’45" and 8’15" north latitude, and from 98’15" to 98’40" east longitude on the map, and well below the latitudes of destructive tropical cyclone. Time is + 7 hours ahead of GMT. Phuket is Thailand’s a largest islands (550 square kilometers / 212 square miles) surrounded by 32 smaller islands. Its widest is 21.3 kilometers; longest is 48.7 kilometers.Phuket is mainly granite, with low forested mountains and many of beautiful white-sand beaches (mostly on the west coast). The borders :North: The Pak Prah strait, spanned by two bridges; Sarasin Bridge (the older) and Thao Thep Krasatri Bridge (the newer).South: The Andaman Sea.East: Phang-nga Bay (Phang-nga Province).West: The Andaman Sea.

ClimatePhuket has two major seasons ,the Rains Season and the Hot Season. The Rains Season from May through October. However there are many sunny days throughout the Rains Season: showers customarily last little more than 2 or 3 hours. The Hot Season from November through April. Temperatures are highest in March and April.

The best months for travel are November through February.Average temperatures range between 22 and 34 degrees Celsius. December is the peak tourist month , if you want to avoid the crowds and enjoy off-season hotel rate come during the summertime-they may carry some heavy rains but these quite often occur during late evening and overnight and unlikely to spoil your enjoyment. (Take note that August and September are the wettest month. How to get there Private carFrom Bangkok, take Highway 4 through Nakhon Pathom, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Chumphon, then through the southern of Thailand by Ranong , Kra Buri (Kaper districts), Phangnga (Takua Pa and Takua Thung districts) and onto Phuket island across the Thao Thepkasattri Bridge. The total distance is 862 kilometers.BusThere are 3 types of Air-conditioned coaches depart from Bangkok’s Southern Bus Terminal arrival to Phuket every day. TrainThere is no railway station in Phuket so it doesn’t have direct train services to Phuket.

Travelers by train must get off at Phun Phin railway station in Surat Thani and take buses to continue to Phuket  has various daily flights connecting the Bangkok-Phuket route. In addition, they have daily flights connecting Phuket with Hat Yai, Surat Thani, and Narathiwat.

Though, there are Phuket no archaeological operation was carried out yet we have countless heritage remains therein. There is the need to make exploration and excavation perfectly on scientific method to get more authentic history of the past Phuket11.

 The name of Taradih, Bodhgaya do not occur in the Vedas but is mentioned in later works like the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Samhita and the religious codes of Atri Vasistha and Yajnavalkya, Among the sacred sites in Gaya- Kshetra, as enumerated in the Gaya-Mahatmaya section of the Vayu-Purana is mentioned Dharmaranya which, as its name implies, constituted a jungle tract and may be identified, at least in part, with what the Buddhists call the forest of Uruvela or Uruvilva (Bodh-Gaya). It represents a sanctified boundary inside which is enshrined the image of Dharmesvara or Buddha and the Bo-tree (Asvatha) of World-wide fame.
The enshrinement of the image of the Buddha-Dharmesvara and the presence of the famous Bo-tree suffice to indicate that the Dharmaranya of the Gaya Mahatmya is at least in part, the secred site, the precincts of the Bodhgaya temple representing the Jungle of Uruvela or Uruvilva of the Buddhist literature. And the Bodhidruma Asvatha of the Vayu-Purana is undoubtedly the famous Pipala tree at Bodhgaya at the foot of which lord Buddha attained enlightenment or Buddhahood.

 Magadha came into prominence in the sixth century B.C., and it included Patna, Gaya, Bodhgaya and parts of Hazaribagh. Bodhgaya formed a part of great political entity of Magadh, and from the time of Asoka, Bodhgaya came to acquire special significance. Asoka's love for Budhism and Bodhi tree roused up zealousy and revengeful spirit in the heart of his second queen Tishyarakshita who had cut down the Bodhi tree.
It is said that the tree was miraculously brought to life, the two Bharhut carvings represent the4 Bodhi tree and an Asokan pillar surmounted by an elephant. The Barabar and Nagarjuni Hill caves contain Mauryan Inscriptions and are dedicated to the Ajivikas by Asoka and his grand son5 Dasharatha. These caves are the earliest examples of cave architecture of Bihar. These caves are exeavated in the hardest granite with infinite care, and the interior surface are lurnished like glass. The Sitamarhi caves are (Dist. Nawada) similar to that of Barabar caves and contains several sculptures. But the Sunga aculptures. But the Sunga aculptures at Bodhgaya have a place of lasting interest in the history of Indian Art.

 Kharavela of Kalinga took advantage of the fluid political situation of Magahda and invaded the area. He led and expedition into Gorthagiri (Barbar Hill) and defeated the king of Magadha. The Mitras appear to have been connected with Bodhgaya as their names appear on the stone railings of Bodhgaya. Whether the Mitras were connected with the Sungas or were independent ruling dynasties, it is difficult to say in the present state of our knowledge. We have the name of Kaushikiputra Indragni Mitra, Brahmani Mitra and others. The name of Kurangi, wife of Indragni Mitra, has been inscribed as a donor of the fifteen of the Surviving pillars and the two coping pieces of the old stone railing. Her munificence was responsible for the erection of the old sand stone railing, the old diamond throne and Jewel walk shrine. The name of Sirima occurs with thar of Kurangi as a joint donor of two of the surviving coping pieces of the sand stone railing. Nagadevi, wife of Brahmani-Mitras also erected a Yaksa pillar. Bodhgaya formed a part of the Kushana Empire. According to Cunningham, Huvishka furnished funds, for the building of Mahabodhi.

 Under the Imperial Guptas, Bodhgaya attained prominence. In one of the inscriptions of Samudra Gupta (the so-called spurious Gaya copper plate was issued from Ayodhya), Gaya is mentioned as a Vishya. It was an administrative headquarter under the Guptas. During his reign Mahanaman had installed an image of Lord Buddha with inscription and it was done with the permission of the king Samudragupta. Samudragupta is famous in the history of Gaya and Bodhgaya for the exchange of letters between him and Meghavarmana of Ceylon (c. 330 A.D.). The king of Ceylon had sent two monks and his brother to pay homage to the Vajrasana and also to visit the monastery built by Asoka when on their return they complained that they could not stay in confort. Meghavarmana decided to found a monastery at Bodhgaya12.

 Meghavarmana dispatched a mission to Samudragupta with invaluable gifts and requested for permission to found a monastery at Bodhgaya. The permission was granted. However, a splendid convent known as Mahabodhi Sangharama was constructed to the north of the Bodhi tree. When Hiuen-Tsang visited this monastery in the seventh century A.D., it was occupied by a thousand monks of the Sthavira school of Mahayana sect.

 Dated seulptures of the Gupta period have been  noticed from Gaya and two figures of Buddha, standing and the other sitting, form Bodhgaya are supposed to be earliest dated sculptures of the Gupta period (corresponding to A.D. 383) and stylistically belong to the Mathura school of Art of the earliest centuries. Thirteen inscriptions belonging to the period between A.D. 100 and 400 are setforth in a chronological order and these mark some distint stages in the growth and development of the life of the Buddhist holy land. According to Fa Hien the three monasteries8 at Bodhgaya were surrounded by Jungles and the city was empty and desolate. Towards the last day of the days of the Gupta rule some of the Kumaramatyas seem to have asserted their independence as we find Kumaramatya Maharaja Nandana issuing a land grant in Gaya district in his won right. The Maukharia were also ruling at Gaya and Bodhgaya as feudatories of the Guptas but they also asserted their independence.

 The Maukharis, exercised their suzerainty up to this Ksetra. Three Maukhari inscriptions in the Barabar and Nagarjuni Hills, in the Lomesh-Rishi and Gopika caves are important for the study of the contemporary history. These inscriptions supply us with the name of Yajna Varmana, Shardulavarmana and Anantavarmana. The latter installed the image of Krishna in the Brabar cave near Gaya. He also set up images of Bhutapati (Shira), Parvati (Devi) and Katyayani in Barabar and Nagarjuni Hill caves. One of these three inscriptions refers to a temple of Siddheswara which is still in situ on the Barabar peak13. It seems that Maukhari's ruled over Gaya and Bodhgaya first as feudatories10 of the Guptas, and later as independent rulers.

 Whether al lthe Buddha images seen by Fa hian at Bodhgaya exist now or not are still a matter of conjecture. But there is one image which may be safely relegated to the later Kushana age or early Gupta age. In the opinion of Cunningham "The earliest figure of Buddha which has yet been found at Mahabodhi." It bears an inscription of four lines on its pedestal which is written in the Kushana style. The Sanskrit of its text is not entirely free from such Prakrit from as Upasikaya, Achadhammasahaya, and mata-Pituna. The image was installed in Samvat 65 (143 A.D.). The work of installation was done by a Buddhist monk with the aid of a Buddhist lay woman named Achadhamma. Presently this statue is in Indian Musecum at Calcutta. However the date of this Buddha image is placed in early Gupta or the post Kushana's period. At the time of Fa-Hien's visit the great temple at Bodhgaya had not then come into existence, and the sacred area with the growing shrines presented but a simple and decent show.

   References :
1. 8. Prasad, A.K. pp. 91-93
2. Ibid, p. 12
3. IAR, 1961, P. 48
4. Dasgupta, P.C., Excavation at Pandu-Rajar-Dhibi. pp. 23-26
5. Ansari op. cit, P. 43
6. IAR., P. 49
7. Dasgupta, PC op cit., p. 16
8. Parasad, A.K. The remains of Chalcolithic culture at Taradih, Man and Environment pp. 91-93
9. Ansari op. cit, P. 6
10. Ibid
11. Cf Potteries in ancient Indian, p. 133
12. Prasad, A.K. op cit., pp. 92-93
13. Ansari, A. Q. Archaeological Remains of Bodhgaya, D.K. Publication, Delhi, pp. 13-17
14. Ibid10. Ibid.


Page  No.
Acknowledgement .......................................................... I-III
I :Preface ......................................................... 1-18
II  : Introduction of the site ................................. 19-59
  (a) Taradih
  (b) Phuket
III :Archeological Remains discovered from ........ 60-84
  (a) Taradih, Bodhgaya
  (b) Phuket near Nakhon Si Thammarat 
IV  :Cultural study of both the sites in the
   light of archaeological findings  ..................... 85-116
V   :Ceramves, Artpicces and other objects       
 from both the sites-Phuket-Taradih ................... 117-146
VI :Taradih and Phuket as the site of heritage 
   historical study ............................................... 147-183
VII  :Conclusion and Illustrations ............................ 184-193
  BIBLIOGRAPHY .............. .................. 194-200


Andrews, G.R. "Research Directions in the Region: Past, Present and Future". In Ageing in East and South East Asia, edited by D.R. Phillips, pp. 22-35. Edward Arnold: London, 1992.
Antonucci, T.C. "Social Supports and Social Relationships". In Handbook of Aging and Social Sciences Third Edition, edited by R.H. Binstock and L.K. George, pp. 205-226. San Diego, California and London: Academic Press, 1990.
Argyle, M. "Benefits Produced by Support Social Relationships". In The Meaning and Measurement of Social Support, edited by H. Veiel and U. Baumann, pp. 13-32. New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 1992.
Asher, M.G. "Financing Old Age in Southeast Asia: An Overview". Southeast Asian Affairs 1996 (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1996), pp. 72-98.
Awang, H.S. "Current Programme Implementation and Evaluation". In Proceedings of the National Seminar on Challenges of Senior Citizens Towards Vision 2020, Kuala Lumpur, 1 October 1992.
Bae, S.S. "A Study on the Development of Dementia Management Model in Kwangmyung City, Korea". Journal of Health Administration 9 (1999): 30-71.
Bowling, A. Measuring Health: A Review of Quality of Life Measurement Scales. Buckingham: Open University Press, 1991.
Browne, C.V. Women, Feminism and Aging. New York: Springer, 1998.
Butler, R.N. and H.P. Gleason. Productive Aging. New York: Springer, 1985.
Bunrayong W. "Family Burdens of Caring for the Demented Elderly at Home" (in Thai). Journal of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine 1 (2000): 11-8.
Byun Y.C., Y.J. Han, S.H. Lee, J.H. Park, J.I. Woo, and J.H. Lee. A Study on the Development of Dementia Management Mapping. Seoul: Korean Institute for Health and Social Affairs, 1997.
Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong. Hong Kong Annual Digest of Statistics 1987-1996. Hong Kong: Government Printer, 1996.
Chan A.C.M. "An Explanatory Model for Depression Amongst the Chinese Elderly in Hong Kong - A Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective". In Mental Health in Hong Kong 1996/97, edited by K.Y. Mak, T. Ng, C. Chan, T.Y. Lo, and K.S. Yip, pp. 140-61. Hong Kong: Mental Health Association of Hong Kong, 1997.
Chan K.E. "Demographic and Socio-Economic Linkages in Malaysia: The Case of Demographic Ageing" In First Symposium on Gerontology 1995: Issues and Challenges of Ageing Multidisciplinary Perspectives: Proceedings (1995). Kuala Lumpur: Gerontology Association of Malaysia, 1996.
Chappell, N. L. Social Support and Aging. Toronto: Butterworths, 1992.
Chen, C.Y.P., G.R. Andrews, R. Josef, K.E. Chan, and J.T. Arokiasamy. Health and Ageing in Malaysia. A Study Sponsored by the World Health Organization. Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 1986.
Chen, A.J. and G. Jones. Ageing in ASEAN - Its Socio-Economic Consequences. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1989.
Cheung, P.L. "Population Ageing in Singapore". Asia-Pacific Journal of Social Work 3, no. 2 (1993): 77-89.
Chi, I. and J. Boey. A Mental Health and Social Support Study of the Old Old in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Department of Social Work and Social Administration, University of Hong Kong, 1994.
Choi, J.S. A Study on the Korean Family. Seoul: Ilji-Sa, 1982.
Choi, S.J. "Family and Ageing in Korea: A New Concern and Challenge". Ageing and Society 16, no. 1 (1996): 1-25.
Choi, S.J. and H.K. Suh. Aging in Korea. Federation of the Korean Gerontological Societies. Seoul: Chung-Ang Publishers, 1995.
Clegg, J. Dictionary of Social Services. London: Bedford Square Press, 1971.
Deloitte and Touche Consulting Group. A Study of the Needs of Elderly People in Hong Kong for Residential Care and Community Support Services. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Government, 1997.
Department of Social Welfare, Malaysia. Annual Statistical Bulletin, 1995; 1996; 1997; 1998; 1999. Kuala Lumpur: External Services Division, National Printing Department, 1995-1999.
Department of Statistics, Singapore. General Household Survey 1995: Socio-Demographic and Economic Characteristics. Singapore: Department of Statistics, 1995.
Domingo, L.J. "Ageing and Women in Developing Countries: Examination of Issues from a Cohort Perspective". In Population Growth and Demographic Structure: Proceedings of the U.N. Expert Group Meeting on Population Growth and Demographic Structure. New York: United Nations, 1992.
ESCAP (Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific). Studies on Consequence of Population Change: Malaysia. Asian Population Studies Series no. 118. New York: United Nations, 1993.
 Development. Asian Population Studies Series no. 140. New York: United Nations, 1996a.

Elder, G.H., J.R. Rudkin, and M.J. Shanhan. "Psychosocial Stress over the Life Course". In Psychosocial Stress: Perspective on Structure, Theory, Life Course, and Method, edited by H. Kaplan, pp. 247-292. San Diego: Academic Press, 1996.
Elderly Commission, Hong Kong. Report of the Elderly Commission 1997-1999. Hong Kong: Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, 2000.
Fox, L. and E. Palmer. "New Approaches to Multipillar Pension Systems: What in the World is Going On?" In New Ideas about Old Age Security: Toward Sustainable Pension Systems in the 21st Century, edited by R. Holzmann and J.E. Stiglitz et al., pp. 90-132. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2001.
Garner, J.D. "Long-term Care". In Encyclopedia of Social Work, 19th Edition edited by R. Edwards et al., pp. 1625-34. Washington, D.C.: National Association of Social Workers, 1995.
Hartz, G.W. and Splain, M.D. Psychosocial Intervention in Long- term Care: An Advanced Guide for Social Workers and Nurses. New York: Haworth Press, 1997.
Hashimoto, A. "Ageing in Japan". In Ageing in East and South-East Asia, edited by D.R. Phillips, pp. 36-44. London: Edward Arnold, 1992.
Inter-Ministerial Committee on Health Care for the Elderly, Singapore. Report of the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Health Care for the Elderly. Singapore: Ministry of Health, 1999.
Jalal, H. "Future Strategies in Health Care for the Elderly in Malaysia". In First Symposium on Gerontology 1995: Issues and Challenges of Ageing Multidisciplinary Perspectives: Proceedings. Gerontology Association of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 1996.
Kahana, E. "Long-term Care Facilities". In Encyclopedia of Sociology, Second edition, edited by E.F. Borgatta and R.J.V. Montgomery, pp. 1663-83. New York: Macmillan Reference, 2000.
Karim, H.A. "The Elderly in Malaysia: Demographic Trends". Medical Journal of Malaysia 52, no. 3 (September 1997): 206-12.
Lee, W.K.M. "Economic and Social Implications of Aging in Singapore". Journal of Aging and Social Policy 10, no. 4 (1999): 73-92.
Ministry of Finance, Malaysia. Economic Report (Annual). Kuala Lumpur: National Printing Department, 1995-2000.
Ministry of Health, Singapore. Towards Better Heath Care: Main Report of the Review Committee on National Health Policies. Singapore: Ministry of Health, 1992.
Park, T.R. Welfare of the Elderly: Theories and Practice (in Korean). Kyungsan: Taegu University Press, 1999.
Straits Times, Sunday Review, 18 September 1994.
South-East Asia, edited by D.R. Phillips, pp. 167-184. London: Edward Arnold, 1992.
Teo, P. "The National Policy on Elderly People in Singapore". Ageing and Society 14 (1994): 405-27.
Tey, N.P. "Social Equity: Policies and Programmes Affecting Older People in Malaysia". Paper presented at the 22nd Federation of ASEAN
Security. World Bank Discussion Paper, no. 392 (1997): 1-3.
Yuen, C. "Implementation of the Gate-keeping Mechanism: An Experience Sharing". Paper presented at the Regional Conference, Into the Millennium of the Older Adult: Releasing Potentials and Erasing Prejudices, Gerontological Society of Singapore, Singapore, 12-14 January 2001.




ประวัติศาสตร์ ประวัติศาสตร์

แก้ไขล่าสุดเมื่อ ( พุธ, 28 ธันวาคม 2011 )
< ก่อนหน้า   ถัดไป >



ชื่อใด (หรือคำใด) สื่อได้ชัดคม รู้เป้าหมายได้มากกว่า

Who's Online

ขณะนี้มี 3 บุคคลทั่วไป ออนไลน์